The Bancorp's earnings are dependent upon the earnings of the Bank. The Bank's earnings are primarily dependent upon net interest margin. The net interest margin is the difference between interest income earned on loans and investments and interest expense paid on deposits and borrowings stated as a percentage of average interest earning assets. The net interest margin is perhaps the clearest indicator of a financial institution's ability to generate core earnings. Fees and service charges, wealth management operations income, gains and losses from the sale of assets, provisions for loan losses, income taxes and operating expenses also affect the Bancorp's profitability. A summary of the Bancorp's significant accounting policies are detailed in Note 1 to the Bancorp's consolidated financial statements included in this report. Preparing financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in
the United States of Americarequires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period, as well as the disclosures provided. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates associated with the allowance for loan losses are particularly susceptible to material change in the near term. At December 31, 2021, the Bancorp had total assets of $1.6 billionand total deposits of $1.4 billion. The Bancorp's deposit accounts are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund(DIF) that is administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FDIC), an agency of the federal government. At December 31, 2021, stockholders' equity totaled $156.6 million, with book value per share at $45.00. Net income for 2021 was $15.0 million, or $4.30basic and diluted earnings per common share. The return on average assets was 0.95%, while the return on average stockholders' equity was 9.61%.
Royal Financial, Inc.On January 31, 2022, the Bancorp completed its acquisition of Royal Financial, Inc.("RYFL") pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated July 28, 2021(the "Merger Agreement") between the Bancorp and RYFL. Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, RYFL merged with and into the Bancorp, with the Bancorp as the surviving corporation (the "RYFL Merger"). Simultaneous with the RYFL Merger, Royal Savings Bank, an Illinoisstate chartered savings bank and wholly-owned subsidiary of RYFL, merged with and into the Bank, with the Bank as the surviving institution. Under the terms of the Merger Agreement, RYFL stockholders who owned 101 or more shares of RYFL common stock were permitted to elect to receive either 0.4609 shares of Finward common stock or $20.14in cash, or a combination of both, for each share of RYFL common stock owned, subject to proration and allocation provisions such that 65% of the shares of RYFL common stock outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the merger were converted into the right to receive shares of Finward common stock and the remaining 35% of the outstanding RYFL shares were converted into the right to receive cash. Stockholders holding less than 101 shares of RYFL common stock will have the right to receive fixed consideration of $20.14in cash and no stock consideration for each share of RYFL common stock. As a result of RYFL stockholder stock and cash elections and the related allocation and proration provisions of the Merger Agreement, Finward issued 795,423 shares of its common stock and paid cash consideration of approximately $18.7 millionin the RYFL Merger. Based on the January 28, 2022closing price of $47.75per share of Finward common stock, the transaction had an implied valuation of approximately $56.7 million. The acquisition further expanded the Bank's banking center network in Cook County, Illinois, expanding the Bank's full-service retail banking network to 30 banking centers. Page 46 of 108 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Financial Condition During the year ended
December 31, 2021, total assets increased by $124.5 million(8.3%), to $1.6 billion, with interest-earning assets increasing by $125.1 million(8.9%). At December 31, 2021, interestearning assets totaled $1.5 billionand represented 94.0% of total assets. Loans totaled $966.7 millionand represented 63.4% of interest-earning assets, 59.6% of total assets and 67.4% of total deposits. The loan portfolio, which is the Bancorp's largest asset, is a significant source of both interest and fee income. December 31, December 31, (Dollars in thousands) 2021 2020 Balance % Loans Balance % Loans Residential real estate $ 260,13427.1 % 286,048 33.0 % Home equity 34,612 3.6 % 39,233 5.4 % Commercial real estate 317,145 33.0 % 298,257 31.2 % Construction and land development 123,822 12.9 % 93,562 9.7 % Multifamily 61,194 6.4 % 50,571 5.7 % Farmland - 0.0 % 215 0.0 % Consumer 582 0.1 % 1,025 0.1 % Manufactured Homes 37,887 3.9 % 24,232 1.8 % Commercial business 115,772 12.1 % 158,140 11.4 % Government 8,991 0.9 % 10,142 1.7 % Loans receivable 960,139 100.0 % 961,425 100.0 % Plus: Net deferred loans origination costs 6,810 3,871 Undisbursed loan funds (229 ) (150 ) Loans receivable, net of deferred fees and costs $ 966,720 $ 965,146December 31, December 31, 2021 2020 Loans receivable to total assets 59.6 % 64.5 % Loans receivable to earning assets 63.4 % 69.0 % Loans receivable to total deposits 67.4 % 74.1 % The Bancorp is primarily a portfolio lender. Mortgage banking activities historically have been limited to the sale of fixed rate mortgage loans with contractual maturities greater than 15 years. These loans are identified as held for sale when originated and sold, on a loan-by-loan basis, in the secondary market. The Bancorp will also retain fixed rate mortgage loans with a contractual maturity greater than 15 years on a limited basis. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, the Bancorp originated $153.1 millionin new fixed rate mortgage loans for sale, compared to $224.9 millionduring the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. Net gains realized from the mortgage loan sales totaled $5.3 millionfor the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, compared to $7.6 millionfor the twelve months ended December 31, 2020. At December 31, 2021, the Bancorp had $5.0 millionin loans that were classified as held for sale, compared to $11.3 millionat December 31, 2020. In addition, the Bancorp participates in the U.S. Small Business Administration'sPaycheck Protection Program ("PPP"), a program initiated to help small businesses maintain their workforces during the pandemic. As of December 31, 2021, the Bancorp approved 782 applications totaling $91.5 millionfor the first round, with an average loan size of approximately $117 thousand. These loans helped local business owners retain 10,758 employees based on the borrowers' applications. The Bancorp's SBA lender fee is averaging approximately 3.80% for the first round of the program, and fees will be earned over the life of the associated loans. The first round of PPP closed in August of 2020. On December 21, 2020, Congresspassed the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, which included provisions for a second round of PPP funding in 2021. As of December 31, 2021, the Bancorp approved 420 applications totaling $37.5 millionfor the second round, with an average loan size of approximately $89 thousand. These loans will help local business owners retain 4,410 employees based on the borrowers' applications. The Bancorp's SBA lender fee is averaging approximately 5.32% for this program, and fees will be earned over the life of the associated loans. As of December 31, 2021, the Bancorp had remaining loan balances under the Paycheck Protection Program totaling $22.1 million. Page 47 of 108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Non-performing loans include those loans that are 90 days or more past due and accruing and those loans that have been placed on non-accrual status. At December 31, 2021, all non-performing loans are also accounted for on a non-accrual basis, except for one commercial real estate loan totaling $91 thousand, two commercial business loans totaling $49 thousand, one home equity loan totaling $34 thousand, and one residential real estate loan totaling $31 thousandthat remained accruing and more than 90 days past due.
Bancorp’s non-performing loans are summarized below:
(Dollars in thousands) December 31, December 31, Loan Segment 2021 2020 Residential real estate
$ 4,682 $ 6,470Home equity 657 505 Commercial real estate 1,031 5,827 Construction and land development - 20 Multifamily 455 504 Farmland - - Commercial business 436 1,039 Consumer - - Manufactured homes - - Government - - Total $ 7,261 $ 14,365Nonperforming loans to total loans 0.75 % 1.49 % Nonperforming loans to total assets 0.45 % 0.96 %
Substandard loans include non-performing loans and potential problem loans, when information about possible credit problems or other conditions causes management to question the ability of such borrowers to meet debt covenants of the loan or the terms of repayment. No outstanding has been classified internally as doubtful or as a loss
Loans below Bancorp’s standards are summarized below:
(Dollars in thousands) December 31, December 31, Loan Segment 2021 2020 Residential real estate
$ 3,722 $ 6,387Home equity 632 495 Commercial real estate 3,562 8,180 Construction and land development - - Multifamily 384 504 Farmland - - Commercial business 387 1,061 Consumer - - Manufactured homes - - Government - - Total $ 8,687 $ 16,627In addition to identifying and monitoring non-performing and other classified loans, management maintains a list of special mention loans. Special mention loans represent loans management is closely monitoring due to one or more factors that may cause the loan to become classified as substandard. Page 48 of 108 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bancorp’s special mention loans are summarized below:
(Dollars in thousands) December 31, December 31, Loan Segment 2021 2020 Residential real estate
$ 2,940 $ 3,539Home equity 415 761 Commercial real estate 12,011 11,983 Construction and land development 3,630 3,652 Multifamily 153 1,408 Farmland - - Commercial business 1,915 1,341 Consumer - - Manufactured homes 59 - Government - - Total $ 21,123 $ 22,684A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that a borrower will be unable to pay all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. Typically, management does not individually classify smaller-balance homogeneous loans, such as residential mortgages or consumer loans, as impaired, unless they are troubled debt restructurings. Purchased loans acquired in a business combination are recorded at estimated fair value on their purchase date. Purchased loans with evidence of credit quality deterioration since origination are considered purchased credit impaired loans. Expected future cash flows at the purchase date in excess of the fair value of loans are recorded as interest income over the life of the loans if the timing and amount of the future cash flows is reasonably estimable ("accretable yield"). The difference between contractually required payments and the cash flows expected to be collected at acquisition is referred to as the non-accretable difference and represents probable losses in the portfolio. In determining the acquisition date fair value of purchased credit impaired loans, and in subsequent accounting, the Bancorp aggregates these purchased loans into pools of loans by common risk characteristics, such as credit risk rating and loan type. Subsequent to the purchase date, increases in cash flows over those expected at the purchase date are recognized as interest income prospectively. Subsequent decreases to the expected cash flows will generally result in a provision for loan losses. The Bancorp's impaired loans, including purchased credit impaired loans, are summarized below: (Dollars in thousands) December 31, December 31, Loan Segment 2021 2020 Residential real estate $ 1,771 $ 2,165Home equity 284 353 Commercial real estate 1,600 6,341 Construction and land development - - Multifamily 556 716 Farmland - - Commercial business 1,597 2,246 Consumer - - Manufactured homes - - Government - - Total $ 5,808 $ 11,821At times, the Bancorp will modify the terms of a loan to forego a portion of interest or principal or reduce the interest rate on the loan to a rate materially less than market rates, or materially extend the maturity date of a loan as part of a troubled debt restructuring. The valuation basis for the Bancorp's troubled debt restructurings is based on the present value of expected future cash flows; unless consistent cash flows are not present, then the fair value of the collateral securing the loan is the basis for valuation. Page 49 of 108 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bancorp’s distressed debt restructured loans are summarized below:
(Dollars in thousands) December 31, 2021 December 31, 2020 Loan Segment Number of Loans Recorded Investment Number of Loans Recorded Investment Residential real estate 5 $ 342 8 $ 614 Home equity 3 83 7 187 Commercial real estate 3 747 4 872 Construction and land development - - - - Multifamily - - - - Farmland - - - - Commercial business 2 694 6 448 Consumer - - - - Manufactured homes - - - - Government - - - - Total 13 $ 1,866 25 $ 2,121 The decrease in nonperforming, impaired, and substandard loans as of
December 31, 2021, is due to the loan sale with charge off for a single large commercial real estate loan relationship, which operates a hotel, totaling $5,080 thousand. Nonperforming loans at December 31, 2021, also decreased due to the removal of various residential real estate loans from nonaccrual totaling $2,856 thousand. Substandard loans at December 31, 2021, also decreased due to the removal of various residential real estate loans totaling $2,665 thousand. Impaired loans at December 31, 2021, also decreased due to the removal of eight commercial business or commercial real estate customers with loans totaling $623 thousanddue to loan pay off or refinance. The decrease in special mention loans as of December 31, 2021, is due to the removal of six commercial business, multifamily or commercial real estate customers with loans totaling $2,513 thousandbecause of loan risk rating change or loan pay off and the removal of various residential real estate and home equity loans totaling $945 thousandwhich was offset by the addition of seven commercial real estate or commercial business customers with loans totaling $2,854 thousand. At December 31, 2021, management is of the opinion that there are no loans, except certain of those discussed above, where known information about possible credit problems of borrowers causes management to have serious doubts as to the ability of such borrowers to comply with the present loan repayment terms and which will imminently result in such loans being classified as past due, non-accrual or a troubled debt restructure. Management does not presently anticipate that any of the non-performing loans or classified loans would materially affect future operations, liquidity or capital resources. The allowance for loan losses (ALL) is a valuation allowance for probable incurred credit losses, increased by the provision for loan losses, and decreased by charge-offs net of recoveries. A loan is charged off against the allowance by management as a loss when deemed uncollectible, although collection efforts continue and future recoveries may occur. The determination of the amounts of the ALL and provisions for loan losses is based on management's current judgments about the credit quality of the loan portfolio with consideration given to all known relevant internal and external factors that affect loan collectability as of the reporting date. The appropriateness of the current period provision and the overall adequacy of the ALL are determined through a disciplined and consistently applied quarterly process that reviews the Bancorp's current credit risk within the loan portfolio and identifies the required allowance for loan losses given the current risk estimates. Page 50 of 108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Bancorp's provision for loan losses for the twelve months ended are summarized below: (Dollars in thousands) December 31, December 31, Loan Segment 2021 2020 Residential real estate $ 220 $ 374 Home equity 81 53 Commercial real estate 639 1,713 Construction and land development 714 324 Multifamily 222 97 Farmland - - Commercial business (377 ) 1,145 Consumer 10 (2 ) Manufactured homes - - Government - (17 ) Total $ 1,509 $ 3,687
Information on Bancorp charges and recoveries is summarized below:
(Dollars in thousands) (unaudited) As of December 31, 2021 Loan Segment Charge-off Recoveries Net Charge-offs Residential real estate
$ (32 )$ 81 $ 49 Home equity (1 ) 1 - Commercial real estate (530 ) - (530 ) Construction and land development - - - Multifamily - - - Farmland - - - Commercial business (158 ) 36 (122 ) Consumer (29 ) 8 (21 ) Manufactured homes - - Government - - - Total $ (750 ) $ 126$ (624 ) The ALL provisions take into consideration management's current judgments about the credit quality of the loan portfolio, loan portfolio balances, changes in the portfolio mix and local economic conditions. In determining the provision for loan losses for the current period, management has considered risks associated with the local economy, changes in loan balances and mix, and asset quality. In addition, management considers reserves that are not part of the ALL that have been established from acquisition activity. The Bancorp acquired loans for which there was evidence of credit quality deterioration since origination and it was determined that it was probable that the Bancorp would be unable to collect all contractually required principal and interest payments. At December 31, 2021, total purchased credit impaired loans nonaccretable and accretable discount totaled $1.4 millioncompared to $2.1 millionat December 31, 2020. Additionally, the Bancorp has acquired loans where there was no evidence of credit quality deterioration since origination and has marked these loans to their fair values. As part of the fair value of loans receivable, a net fair value discount was established for loans acquired and has a balance of $1.1 millionat December 31, 2021, compared to $2.0 millionat December 31, 2020. Details on these fair value marks and the additional reserves created can be found in Note 4, Loans Receivable. A deferred cost reserve is maintained for the portfolio of manufactured home loans that have been purchased. This reserve is available for use for manufactured home loan nonperformance and costs associated with nonperformance. If the segment performs in line with expectation, the deferred cost reserve is paid as an origination cost to the third party originator of the loan. Page 51 of 108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Bancorp's allowance to total loans and non-performing loans are summarized below: (Dollars in thousands) December 31, December 31, 2021 2020 Allowance for loan losses $ 13,343 $ 12,458Total loans $ 966,720 $ 966,578Non-performing loans $ 7,261 $ 14,365ALL-to-total loans 1.38 % 1.29 % ALL-to-non-performing loans (coverage ratio) 183.8 % 86.7 % The December 31, 2021, balance in the ALL account is considered adequate by management after evaluation of the loan portfolio, past experience and current economic and market conditions. While management may periodically allocate portions of the allowance for specific problem loans, the whole allowance is available for any loan charge offs that occur. The allocation of the ALL reflects performance and growth trends within the various loan categories, as well as consideration of the facts and circumstances that affect the repayment of individual loans, and loans which have been pooled as of the evaluation date, with particular attention given to non-performing loans and loans which have been classified as substandard, doubtful or loss. Management has allocated reserves to both performing and non-performing loans based on current information available. At December 31, 2021, the Bank held no balances in foreclosed real estate, compared to $538 thousandand ten properties at December 31, 2020. During 2021, net sales of foreclosed real estate totaled $585 thousandand net gains from the 2021 sales totaled $47 thousand. The primary objective of the Bancorp's investment portfolio is to provide for the liquidity needs of the Bancorp and to contribute to profitability by providing a stable flow of dependable earnings. Funds are generally invested in federal funds, interest bearing balances in other financial institutions, U.S.government securities, federal agency obligations, obligations of state and local municipalities and corporate securities. The securities portfolio, all of which is designated as available-for-sale, totaled $526.9 millionat December 31, 2021, compared to $410.7 millionat December 31, 2020, an increase of $116.2 million(28.3%). The increase in the securities portfolio during the year is a result of market value adjustments and investment of excess liquidity. At December 31, 2021, the securities portfolio represented 34.6% of interest-earning assets and 32.5% of total assets compared to 29.4% of interest-earning assets and 27.4% of total assets at December 31, 2020.
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Bancorp’s period-end investment portfolio and other short-term investments and inventory balances were as follows:
December 31. December 31, (Dollars in thousands) 2021 2020 Balance % Securities
Balance % Securities
Money market fund $ - 0.0 %
$ 52,94112.9 % U.S.government sponsored entities 8,669 1.6 % 7,860 1.9 % U.S. treasury securities 400 0.1 % - 0.0 % Collateralized mortgage obligations and residential mortgage-backed securities 184,701 35.1 % 154,736 37.7 % Municipal securities 332,127 63.0 % 194,203 47.3 % Collateralized debt obligations 992 0.2 % 929 0.2 % Total securities available-for-sale $ 526,889100.0 % $ 410,669100.0 % December 31. December 31, YTD (Dollars in thousands) 2021 2020 Change Balance Balance $ % Interest bearing deposits in other financial institutions $ 19,987 $ 5,908 $ 14,079238.3 % Fed funds sold 464 - 464 100.0 % Certificates of deposit in other financial institutions 1,709 1,897 (188 ) -9.9 % Federal Home Loan Bank stock 3,247 3,918 (671 ) -17.1 %
The net increase in interest-bearing deposits at other financial institutions is mainly due to the increase in customer deposits.
Deposits are a fundamental and cost-effective source of funds for lending and other investment purposes. The Bancorp offers a variety of products designed to attract and retain customers, with the primary focus on building and expanding relationships.
Bancorp’s period-end deposit portfolio balances were as follows:
December 31, December 31, YTD (Dollars in thousands) 2021 2020 Change Balance Balance $ % Checking
$ 629,038 $ 516,487 $ 112,55121.8 % Savings 293,976 254,108 39,868 15.7 % Money market 271,970 246,916 25,054 10.1 % Certificates of deposit 239,217 284,828 (45,611 ) -16.0 % Total deposits $ 1,434,201 $ 1,302,339 $ 131,86210.1 %
The overall increase in total deposits is primarily the result of Bancorp’s efforts to maintain and grow core deposits and customer preferences for the security and liquidity of Bancorp’s deposit product offerings.
The Bancorp's borrowed funds are primarily used to fund asset growth not supported by deposit generation. The Bancorp's end-of-period borrowing balances were as follows: December 31, December 31, YTD (Dollars in thousands) 2021 2020 Change Balance Balance $ % Repurchase agreements
$ 14,581 $ 13,711 $ 8706.3 % Borrowed funds - 6,149 (6,149 ) -100.0 % Total borrowed funds $ 14,581 $ 19,860 $ (5,279 )-26.6 % Repurchase agreements increased as part of normal account fluctuations within that product line. Borrowed funds decreased as FHLB advances were paid down and matured during the year. Page 53 of 108
Cash and capital resources
For the Bancorp, liquidity management refers to the ability to generate sufficient cash to fund current loan demand, meet deposit withdrawals, and pay dividends and operating expenses. Because profit and liquidity are often conflicting objectives, management attempts to maximize the Bank's net interest margin by making adequate, but not excessive, liquidity provisions. Furthermore, funds are managed so that future profits will not be significantly impacted as funding costs increase. Changes in the liquidity position result from operating, investing and financing activities. Cash flows from operating activities are generally the cash effects of transactions and other events that enter into the determination of net income. The primary investing activities include loan originations, loan repayments, investments in interest bearing balances in financial institutions, and the purchase, sale, and maturity of investment securities. Financing activities focus almost entirely on the generation of customer deposits. In addition, the Bancorp utilizes borrowings (i.e., repurchase agreements, FHLB advances and federal funds purchased) as a source of funds. During 2021, cash and cash equivalents increased
$13.3 millioncompared to a decrease of $27.3 millionfor 2020. During 2021, he primary sources of cash and cash equivalents were the sale loans originated for sale, proceeds from the maturity and paydown of securities, proceeds from the sale of securities, growth of deposits, and proceeds from the maturity and paydown of loans receivable. The primary uses of cash and cash equivalents were origination of loans for sale and purchase of securities. During 2021, net cash from operating activities totaled $17.0 million, compared to $19.7 millionfor 2020. The decrease in cash in-flow from operating activities was primarily due to lower net income year over year, lower sale of loans originated for sale, and net change in accrued expenses and other liabilities. Net cash outflows from investing activities totaled $125.9 millionduring 2021, compared to outflows of $185.0 millionduring 2020. The changes for the current year were primarily related to the decreased purchases of securities and net change in loans receivable. Net cash inflows from financing activities totaled $122.1 millionin 2021, compared to net cash inflows of $138.0 millionin 2020. The increase during 2021 was primarily due to the change in deposits. On a cash basis, the Bancorp paid dividends on common stock of $4.3 millionduring 2021 and 2020. During 2021, the Bancorp's Board of Directors maintained dividends as earnings and capital continued to be sufficient to warrant the current dividend. Management strongly believes that safety and soundness is enhanced by maintaining a high level of capital. Stockholders' equity totaled $156.6 millionat December 31, 2021, compared to $151.7 millionat December 31, 2020, an increase of $4.9 million(3.2%). The increase was primarily the result of net income of $15.0 million, offset against change in net unrealized gains of available for sale securities of $6.2 millionand dividends of $4.3 million. At December 31, 2021, book value per share was $45.00compared to $43.80for 2020.
The following table shows that at
(Dollars in millions) Minimum Required To Be Minimum Required For Well Capitalized Under Prompt Actual Capital Adequacy Purposes Corrective Action Regulations At December 31, 2021 Amount Ratio Amount Ratio Amount Ratio Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets
$ 133.712.6 % $ 47.8 4.5 % $ 69.0 6.5 % Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets $ 133.712.6 % $ 63.7 6.0 % $ 85.0 8.0 % Total capital to risk-weighted assets $ 147.013.9 % $ 85.0 8.0 % $ 106.2 10.0 % Tier 1 capital to adjusted average assets $ 133.78.4 % $ 64.1 4.0 % $ 80.1 5.0 % The Bancorp's ability to pay dividends to its shareholders is entirely dependent upon the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Bancorp. Under Indianalaw, the Bank may pay dividends from its undivided profits (generally, earnings less losses, bad debts, taxes and other operating expenses) as is considered expedient by the Bank's Board of Directors. However, the Bank must obtain the approval of the Indiana Department of Financial Institutions(DFI) if the total of all dividends declared by the Bank during the current year, including the proposed dividend, would exceed the sum of retained net income for the year to date plus its retained net income for the previous two years. For this purpose, "retained net income," means net income as calculated for call report purposes, less all dividends declared for the applicable period. An exemption from DFI approval would require that the Bank have been assigned a composite uniform financial institutions rating of 1 or 2 as a result of the most recent federal or state examination; the proposed dividend would not result in a Tier 1 leverage ratio below 7.5%; and that the Bank not be subject to any corrective action, supervisory order, supervisory agreement, or board approved operating agreement. The aggregate amount of dividends that may be declared by the Bank in 2021, without the need for qualifying for an exemption or prior DFI approval, is its 2021 net profits plus $21.4 million. Moreover, the FDICand the Federal Reserve Boardmay prohibit the payment of dividends if it determines that the payment of dividends would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice in light of the financial condition of the Bank. On November 19, 2021the Board of Directors of the Bancorp declared a fourth quarter dividend of $0.31per share. The Bancorp's fourth quarter dividend was paid to shareholders on January 7, 2022. Page 54 of 108
Results of Operations - Comparison of 2021 to 2020 Net income for 2021 was
$15.0 million, compared to $15.9 millionfor 2020, a decrease of $969 thousand(6.1%). The twelve-month earnings decrease is primarily related to higher noninterest expense and lower noninterest income. The earnings represent a return on average assets of 0.95% for 2021, compared to 1.12% for 2020. The return on average equity was 9.61% for 2021, compared to 11.04% for 2020. Net interest income for 2021, was $48.6 million, an increase of $2.7 million(5.9%) from $45.9 millionfor 2020. During the year, the Bancorp's interest earning assets were negatively impacted by lower yields, while interest expense was driven lower primarily by decreased cost of funds. The weighted-average yield on interest-earning assets was 3.44% for 2021, compared to 3.91% for 2020. The weighted-average cost of funds was 0.15% for 2021, compared to 0.45% for 2020. The impact of the 3.44% return on interest earning assets and the 0.15% cost of funds resulted in a net interest spread of 3.29% for 2021, compared to a net interest spread of 3.46% for 2020. During 2021, total interest income decreased by $966 thousand(1.9%) while total interest expense decreased by $3.7 million(63.8%). The net interest margin was 3.29% for 2021, compared to 3.47% for 2019. The Bancorp's tax equivalent net interest margin for 2021, was 3.51% compared to 3.63% for 2020. Comparing the net interest margin on a tax equivalent basis more accurately compares the returns on tax-exempt loans and securities to those on taxable interest-earning assets. The decrease in interest earning asset income for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the year ended December 31, 2020, is primarily related to continued decreased reinvestment rates in 2021 for loans, securities, and excess cash balances, as a result of the Federal Reservecuts occurring in March 2020. The decrease in interest bearing liability expense is primarily the result of the Bancorp adjusting deposit and repurchase agreement pricing to align with the current interest rate cycle.
The following table shows the change in non-interest income for the year ending
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data) Year Ended
2021 2020 $ Change % Change Noninterest income: Fees and service charges 5,388 5,161 227 4.4 % Gain on sale of loans held-for-sale, net 5,296 7,588 (2,292 ) -30.2 % Wealth management operations 2,375 2,138 237 11.1 % Gain on sale of securities, net 1,987 2,348 (361 ) -15.4 % Increase in cash value of bank owned life insurance 715 708 7 1.0 % Gain on sale of foreclosed real estate 47 78 (31 ) -39.7 % Other 139 127 12 9.4 % Total noninterest income 15,947 18,148 (2,201 ) -12.1 % The increase in fees and service charges is primarily the result of the Bancorp's efforts to provide products and services to help customers be more successful, including debit card and ATM services. The decrease in gain on sale of loans is the result of significant refinance activity in the prior year due to the economic and rate environment, which resulted in more loans originated and sold. The increase in wealth management income is the result of the Bancorp's continued focus on expanding its wealth management line of business. The decrease in gains on the sale of securities is a result of current market conditions and actively managing the portfolio. Page 55 of 108 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The following table shows the change in non-interest expenses for the year ending
(in thousands of dollars, except per share data) End of year
2021 2020 $ Change % Change Noninterest expense: Compensation and benefits 24,241 22,855 1,386 6.1 % Occupancy and equipment 5,537 4,933 604 12.2 % Data processing 3,648 2,267 1,381 60.9 % Federal deposit insurance premiums 861 788 73 9.3 % Professional services 1,205 640 565 88.3 % Marketing 1,085 732 353 48.2 % Other 10,059 9,421 638 6.8 % Total noninterest expense 46,636 41,636 5,000 12.0 % The increase in compensation and benefits is primarily the result of management's continued focus on talent management and retention. The increase in occupancy and equipment is primarily related to facilities improvement efforts aimed at enhancing technology and efficiency. The increase in data processing expense is primarily the result of increased system utilization and investment in technological advancements such as Salesforce and nCino. The increase in marketing expense is the result of increased marketing and rebranding initiatives. The increase in professional services is primarily the result of the Royal Financial acquisition. The increase in other operating expenses is primarily the result of investments in strategic initiatives focusing on growth of the organization, such as the acquisition of Royal Financial. The acquisition of RYFL is discussed in Note 2 of the financial statements. Income tax expenses for the year ended
December 31, 2021, totaled $1.4 million, compared to income tax expense of $2.8for the year ended December 31, 2020, a decrease of $1.4 million(49.0%). The combined effective federal and state tax rates for the Bancorp was 8.6% for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to 14.8% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Bancorp's lower current period effective tax rate is a result of a greater increase to tax preferred income relative to earnings.
Critical accounting policies
Critical accounting policies are those accounting policies that management believes are most important to the portrayal of the Bancorp's financial condition and that require management's most difficult, subjective or complex judgments. The Bancorp's most critical accounting policies are summarized below. Other accounting policies, including those related to the fair values of financial instruments and the status of contingencies, are summarized in Note 1 to the Bancorp's consolidated financial statements. Valuation of
Investment Securities- The fair values of securities available for sale are determined on a recurring basis by obtaining quoted prices on nationally recognized securities exchanges or pricing models utilizing significant observable inputs such as matrix pricing, which is a mathematical technique widely used in the industry to value debt securities without relying exclusively on quoted prices for the specific securities but rather by relying on the securities' relationship to other benchmark quoted securities. Different judgments and assumptions used in pricing could result in different estimates of value. In certain cases where market data is not readily available because of lack of market activity or little public disclosure, values may be based on unobservable inputs and classified in Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. At the end of each reporting period securities held in the investment portfolio are evaluated on an individual security level for other-than-temporary impairment in accordance with the Investments - Debt and Equity Securities Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification. Significant judgments are required in determining impairment, which include making assumptions regarding the estimated prepayments, loss assumptions and the change in interest rates. Page 56 of 108 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We consider the following factors when determining an other-than-temporary impairment for a security: The length of time and the extent to which the market value has been less than amortized cost; the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer; the underlying fundamentals of the relevant market and the outlook for such market for the near future; and an assessment of whether the Bancorp has (1) the intent to sell the debt securities or (2) more likely than not will be required to sell the debt securities before its anticipated market recovery. If either of these conditions is met, management will recognize other-than-temporary impairment. If, in management's judgment, an other-than-temporary impairment exists, the cost basis of the security will be written down for the credit loss, and the unrealized loss will be transferred from accumulated other comprehensive loss as an immediate reduction of current earnings. Management will utilize an independent valuation specialist to value securities semi-annually for other-than-temporary impairment. Allowance for Loan Losses - The Bancorp maintains an Allowance for Loan Losses ("ALL") to absorb probable incurred credit losses that arise from the loan portfolio. The ALL is increased by the provision for loan losses, and decreased by charge-offs net of recoveries. The determination of the amounts of the ALL and provisions for loan losses is based upon management's current judgments about the credit quality of the loan portfolio with consideration given to all known relevant internal and external factors that affect loan collectability. The methodology used to determine the current year provision and the overall adequacy of the ALL includes a disciplined and consistently applied quarterly process that combines a review of the current position with a risk assessment worksheet. Factors that are taken into consideration in the analysis include an assessment of national and local economic trends, a review of current year loan portfolio growth and changes in portfolio mix, and an assessment of trends for loan delinquencies and loan charge-off activity. Particular attention is given to non-accruing loans and accruing loans past due 90 days or more, and loans that have been classified as substandard, doubtful, or loss. Changes in the provision are directionally consistent with changes in observable data. Commercial and industrial, and commercial real estate loans that exhibit credit weaknesses and loans that have been classified as impaired are subject to an individual review. Where appropriate, ALL allocations are made to these loans based on management's assessment of financial position, current cash flows, collateral values, financial strength of guarantors, industry trends, and economic conditions. ALL allocations for homogeneous loans, such as residential mortgage loans and consumer loans, are based on historical charge-off activity and current delinquency trends. Management has allocated general reserves to both performing and non-performing loans based on historical data and current information available. Risk factors for non-performing and internally classified loans are based on an analysis of either the projected discounted cash flows or the estimated collateral liquidation value for individual loans defined as substandard or doubtful. Estimated collateral liquidation values are based on established loan underwriting standards and adjusted for current mitigating factors on a loan-by-loan basis. Aggregate substandard loan collateral deficiencies are determined for residential, commercial real estate, commercial business, and consumer loan portfolios. These deficiencies are then stated as a percentage of the total substandard balances to determine the appropriate risk factors. Risk factors for performing and non-classified loans are based on a weighted average of net charge-offs for the most recent three years, which are then stated as a percentage of average loans for the same period. Historical risk factors are calculated for residential, commercial real estate, commercial business, and consumer loans. The three year weighted average historical factors are then adjusted for current subjective risks attributable to: regional and national economic factors; loan growth and changes in loan composition; organizational structure; composition of loan staff; loan concentrations; policy changes and out of market lending activity. The risk factors are applied to these types of loans to determine the appropriate level for the ALL. Adjustments may be made to these allocations that reflect management's judgment on current conditions, delinquency trends, and charge-off activity. Based on the above discussion, management believes that the ALL is currently adequate, but not excessive, given the risk inherent in the loan portfolio.
Impact of inflation and price changes
The financial statements and related data presented herein have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in
the United States of America, which require the measurement of financial position and operating results in terms of historical dollars, without considering changes in the relative purchasing power of money over time due to inflation. The primary assets and liabilities of the Bancorp are monetary in nature. As a result, interest rates have a more significant impact on the Bancorp's performance than the effects of general levels of inflation. Interest rates do not necessarily move in the same direction or magnitude as the prices of goods and services.
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